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4

Disclaimer: I am not at all knowledgeable on the subject. This is a question based on the reading I've been doing about demonetisation.

One of the objectives of demonetisation was curbing black money or money that tax should be paid on, but isn't. Going in, no one appears to have had an idea of how much black money was in the form of cash. Many people speculated that the money that didn't get deposited in banks would be black money.

I understood this to mean that the RBI had issued 14 lakh crore worth bank notes. Of these, 30% or about 5 lakh crore 1.6 lakh crore [see update below] were estimated to be with various governments, government organizations and banks. That left 9 lakh crore 12.4 lakh crore to recover as deposits in the banks and RBI.

Initially the thought seemed to be that the amount out of the 12.4 lakh crore that didn't return to banks would be black money. Various theories were discussed - whether they could be written off or not, used to recapitalize banks or not... not going there for now. But basic concept was that if - hypothetically - 9 lakh crore got deposited by 30th December (and then 31st March with RBI?), the remaining 3.4 lakh crore would be the black money. Now logically, at least some notes won't return - maybe lost in floods or forgotten in some old purse or whatever. But any significant number (no idea how much that would be) is black money

Yesterday, on the 28th of November 2016, with over a month still left for people to deposit money into banks, the RBI announced that money deposited or exchanged at banks had reached 8.5 lakh crore. This means that thee is supposed to be at the most 0.5 3.9 lakh crore out there. However queues outside banks are still reportedly going strong.

My question is, if, in less than half the time allocated for deposits, we have already recovered most of the notes issued by the RBI, what happens in the remaining duration of slightly more than a month?

Never mind black money. What happens if the notes deposited into banks exceed 0.5 3.9 lakh crore, bringing the total of cash over the 14 lakh crore in notes issued by he RBI? It seems possible, given that the queues are still going strong and that in less than half the time provided, deposits are over 72% of those expected in "ideal" conditions in the full duration provided.

Would that mean that the demonetisation likely converted fake notes into legal money and still found no black money? What would it mean for the liability of the RBI (I haven't fully understood how the liability thing works, but clearly it is a careful balance).

 

What would the implications of something like that be?

 

Update: Sonali Ranade pointed out that some of the 5 lakh crore reported to be with banks and government may have an overlap with money getting deposited in banks. Notes with banks will not, but notes with government organizations like Railways, for example will get deposited in the SBI and be counted again. What this amount is is unclear. Trying to find out.

Update 2: While the money with government and banks was estimated to be at 5 lakh crore, there is a better way of estimating money already with banks alone. An interesting piece by Ira Duggal for Bloomberg-Quint uses RBI reports to arrive at the money in bank chests being Rs. 2.5 lakh crore on the 11th of November. Roughly estimating 86% of this to be in the banned notes, the money in banned notes already with the banks on 11th November would be 2.15 lakh crore. Deduct the 53,000 crore reported by the RBI as deposited within the first 2 days, and you have an estimated 1.62 lakh crore in banned notes with the banks at the start of demonetisation.

"Victims of RNA Corp." OR Victims of Any Unscrupulous Builder, What are the options available for Home Buyer and Aggrieved Flat Owners in Redevelopment Project

How to File a Complaint against a Builder, What are the options available 

Any citizen can file a case against a developer. There are several options and situations under which a property buyer can file a complaint. Types of complaints are:

  1. EOW
  1. Consumer case
  1. Suit for Specific Performance of Contract

On the following grounds in which a property buyer can drag an incompetent property developer on violations/ breach of ground

  • Non-execution of relevant sale agreement despite having received a substantial advance amount
  • Non-issuance of copies of all relevant documents viz.; development agreement, power of attorney, sanctioned plan (by concerned Regional Authorities), specification of construction materials/design as per sanctioned plan and any other relevant documents
  • Charged higher than the agreed amount
  • No issuance of proper receipt(s) against the paid amount
  • Poor quality construction
  • Delivering of a house not complying to agreed specifications
  • No free parking space within the premises
  • Did not form a co-operative housing society and handed over to members
  • Non-provision of water storage tank
  • Non-provision of proper ventilation and light
  • Delayed possession beyond the stipulated time limit
  • Not obtaining completion certificate from the concerned registered (by the authorities) architect
  • Non-issuance of Occupancy Certificate at the time of delivery of respective flats/house to its occupants
  • Non-declaration of expenses against which the developer collected money

And many more…

Any project falling short of above listed causes home buyers to approach for remedy from options available 1 to 5 

1) Cheating Case (EOW) - Jointly or Individually Legal Complaint

2) Cheating Case (EOW) with Private Complaint to the Metropolitan Magistrate (MM)

3) Specific Performance in High Court

4) National Commission if agreement value is more than 1 Crore (New Delhi)

5) State Consumer if agreement value is less than 1 Crore (Mumbai)

How to file a complaint against a builder in the Consumer Court? 

With builders coming under the clause of being a service provider, the process of filing a consumer court complaint against them is the same as with other service providers. To file a complaint, you need to adhere to the following steps:

  • Send a well drafted Legal Notice to the builder stating your reasons of discontent
  • Await for a response for the stipulated time from the other party
  • On no-response, prepare a petition stating facts and evidences with the help of expert legal advice
  • Approach the Consumer Court and file your petition against the builder

As per a judgement passed by the National Commission in the case of Jayantabhai Ranka and Arunaben Kapadia vs Ravi Developers, the Commission pointed out that the cause of action on the builder continues till the allotment of the site or full refund of money on refusal to allot.

This means, no matter how much the delay, the builder is liable to properly honour his service agreement. The other important point that this particular case also highlighted is that ‘each property developer is liable to execute an  agreement for sale’. And failure to do so can be a cause of action against the builder in the Consumer Court.

  • How to approach district consumer Forum
    The complaint can be made on plain paper and you can file it in person or through an authorised agent, after it has been notarised, through registered post or regular post. It is important that you serve a personal or legal notice to the opposite party before filing the complaint. You will need to file four copies, plus additional copies for each opposite party. And the complaint must be filed within two years from the date of the cause of action having arisen. The court fee for cases involving up to Rs 1 lakh is nil for those holding Antyodaya Anna Yojana cards and Rs 100 for the rest. For cases involving up to Rs 5 lakh the case fee is Rs 200, for case up to Rs 10 lakh the court fee is Rs 400 and for those up to Rs 20 lakh the case fee is Rs 500. The demand draft should be made out to the President, Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum, (name of) district.
  • How to approach state consumer Forum
    Cases where the value of goods or services exceeds Rs 20 lakh can be filed and orders of the district forum challenged here within 30 days of the order being passed.
    (a) Documents of record with correct name of all parties and their addresses;(c) More than four additional copies for each respondent for filing an appeal;(e) A statutory deposit of Rs 25,000 or 50 per cent of the award / compensation amount, whichever is less, is to be made by the appellant / opposite parties.
  • (d) Any conditional delay, interim orders and other petitions to be submitted along with an affidavit; and
  • (b) Certified copy of the district forum order;
  • The court fee for cases above Rs 20 lakh and up to Rs 50 lakh is Rs 2,000 while the court fee for cases up to Rs 1 crore is Rs 4,000. The demand draft should be made in favour of the registrar, (name of) state commission and be payable in that state only. To file an appeal you need the following:
  • How to approach National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
    A dissatisfied consumer can file a complaint directly with the national commission or appeal against decisions of the state commission within a month from the date of the order. The court fee is Rs 5,000 and the demand draft should be in the name of The Registrar, National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission. There is no fee for filing an appeal before the state or national commission. You can appeal against the orders of the national commission in the Supreme Court within a period of 30 days.
Sl. No.Total Value of goods or services and the compensation claimedAmount of fee payable
District Forum
(1)Upto one lakh rupees – For complainants who are under the Below Poverty Line holding Antyodaya Anna Yojana CardsNil
(2)Upto one lakh rupees – For complainants other than Antyodaya Anna Yojana card holders.Rs.100
(3)Above one lakh and upto five lakh rupeesRs.200
(4)Above five lakh and upto ten lakh rupeesRs.400
(5)Above ten lakh and upto twenty lakh rupeesRs.500
State Commission
(6)Above twenty lakh and upto fifty lakh rupeesRs.2000
(7)Above fifty lakh and upto one crore rupeesRs.4000
National Commission
(8)Above one crore rupeesRs.5000

You may simultaneously approach EOW with legal advice along with Consumer Court Case

1) Cheating Case (EOW) - Jointly or Individually Legal Complaint

2)Cheating Case (EOW) with Private Complaint to the Metropolitan Magistrate (MM)

This option of specific performance in High Court is little expensive compare to Consumer Court but result oriented all you need a good Advocate and result can be expected in 4 to 8 months where as in consumer court it may take 12 to 24 months
This option is expensive as you have to pay court fees the upper cap of the court fee is Rs 3 Lakh the court fee structure calculation table is given for your reference

COURT FEE SLABS

SLAB-A = FIRST RS. 15,00,000 ----- RS 31,230.

SLAB-B = RS. 15,00,001 TO RS. 26,00,000------@RS 2,000/RS 1,00,000.

SLAB-C =ABOVE RS. 26,00,000--------------------@RS1,200/RS 1,00,000.

SLAB-D = FIXED --------------------------------------------------------RS 200

e.g. COURT FEES FOR RS. 30,00,000, 40,00,000, 50,00,000, 75,00,000 AND 1,00,00,000 ETC. CAN BE CALCULATED AS UNDER:- 

VALUESLAB-ASLAB-BSLAB-CSLAB-DTOTAL

(A+B+C+D)

30,00,00031,23022,000 4,80020058,230
40,00,00031,23022,00016,80020070,230
50,00,00031,23022,00028,80020082,230
75,00,00031,23022,00058,8002001,12,230
1,00,00,00031,23022,00088,8002001,42,230

The Court Fee Above 2CR 39LAKH is RS 300,000/- that means maximum court fee is 3 lakh only

For Court Orders in Favor of Home Buyers and Aggrieved Flat Owners in Redevelopment Project  click the link below

http://wakeupindia-designer.blogspot.in/2016/09/consumer-court-case-order-in-favor-of.html 

http://wakeupindia-designer.blogspot.in/2016/03/hc-pulls-up-aa-estate-pvt-ltd-arm-of.html

Issued in Public Interest by
Sulaiman Bhimani
9323642081
sulaimanbhimani11@gmail.com 

RNA Cartoon

 

2

There is some debate on whether Hindi should be used officially as a government language, that is meeting resistance from anti-Hindi quarters who see it as marginalizing the non-Hindi population of India. On the other hand, there are those who think that English marginalizes most people of India, since effective communicators in English are a minuscule part of the population. Both views have merit and the government will certainly need to communicate in one or more languages, none of which will be acceptable to the entire population, given India's regional and economic diversity.

On a related note, it is rather distressing to see that there is little focus on the development of the regional languages of India. Today, quality education is increasingly available solely in English. Students who study in regional languages are forced to adapt to English to pursue higher studies and employment.

Whether government communication happens in Hindi isn't as important to the larger picture, as the development of education in regional languages. Most of the time, the citizens of India are rarely paying attention to official channels of communication by the government, and their needs of understanding government communication are adequately met by media in every language of their choice.

However, day to day opportunities for improving conditions are another story altogether.

One evening, around the campfire at the Indian Homeschooling Conference, a homeschooling parent, who is a foreigner married to an Indian described property disputes they were having with villagers where they had built their home. They were on the side of the right, and the court ruled in their favor, but after the entire case being heard in Marathi, the judge pronounced the judgement in English. "I wanted to scream," she said. "Speak in Marathi, so that this crowd of twenty people understand what exactly is being said! Tell them that we have not broken laws and are harming no one, so that the threat of hostility to our family ends!"

This is one among many ways in which how a country operating in a language most people don't understand clearly leaves behind citizens while it chases the ideal existence.

Today, we speak of India as a wannabe world power. We speak of our economy and market and democracy and more, yet our standards of living compare unfavorably with some of the worst developed third world countries. We have a large population that is a burden to progress instead of asset, because most of the time, people don't really know what is "officially" going on, though everyone is a master of "everyone knows", bribes to get stuff done, and plain old jugaad.

While the processes of the country operate in a language most people don't understand, access to them will remain limited to the few who speak the language (or actively find other ways of interfacing). While access to knowledge remains restricted to languages other than the mother tongue of citizens, the instinctive absorption of information, trivia and a hundred other forms of knowledge that come from exposure beyond training in an alien language will remain elusive.

It isn't just languages, but languages are gateways to culture. As traditions die out, and large scale displacement accompanies development, is it not important to sit up and take note of the hundreds of Indian dialects already vanished and prevent more from going the same route? With disappearing languages are disappearing histories, disappearing bodies of knowledge. Will a focus on revival of languages aid access to indigenous knowledge that has evolved in the circumstances it will be applied in? It cannot be possible that a continuous civilization spanning thousands of years brought only religious knowledge to the world that is worthy of keeping.

[Inserted update] Harini Calamur points out in her edit in DNA: The Eligibility of Language:

The 2013 survey of Ethnologue, a website that catalogues the languages of the world, declared that there were 7,016 languages and dialects. In the case of India, Ethnologue has this entry “The number of individual languages listed for India is 461. Of these, 447 are living and 14 are extinct. Of the living languages, 63 are institutional, 130 are developing, 187 are vigorous, 54 are in trouble, and 13 are dying.” 

India seems to have got into a rut of seeing its citizens as a liability. Yet, the density of the population itself proclaims that India is a place where life can and does thrive. How is it possible that centuries of practices that allowed life to thrive are seen as so unimportant as to not merit efforts to keep alive and evolve further? How is it that our focus of language and learning is so externalized, that we are desperately applying solutions that evolved in another place to use us to build the empires of others and ignoring that which made India fertile and prosperous enough to be an attraction through the centuries?

If we look at developed countries today, they all operate in languages citizens know. Be it English speaking countries or France, Germany, China, Japan... They have their traditions, they have their unique practices and indigenous knowledge. They have entire sections of the internet buzzing with active users, advanced knowledge translated effortlessly because their languages were considered important enough to make knowledge available in. Citizens do not need interpreters to seek knowledge for themselves. Compare the French or Spanish versions of Wikipedia with Hindi or Marathi. Compare the quantity and quality of education in each language. See regional WordPress users timidly using minimal installs, while Indian software coders write fancy themes and plugins in English alone.

But open content volunteers are still making an effort to extend the knowledge to more and more people, while governments remain content to operate in English. It is intellectual inequality that appears to train some people for jobs, and others for joblessness. Where are the excellent educators in regional languages? Where are the efforts to raise the intellectual potential in regional languages? What would happen if there were ministries for languages at the state and center tasked with ensuring flow of information to all citizens in languages they understand?

And not just regional languages, but languages of different abilities as well! Where has Doordarshan's news for the deaf gone? Why are there no braille newspaper versions sponsored by government funds if necessary? Why can't newspapers be forced to supply braille editions - subscription only, if necessary - and news channels forced to broadcast at least news highlights, if not more in sign language?

Access to knowledge grows people. Access to knowledge in languages people understand grows more people.

Imagine a country with the size of India and the size of its population able to seek and grow knowledge in the language they are at ease with. Wouldn't our intellectual capital grow? Wouldn't more people engage with development more effortlessly? What would happen if agricultural colleges provided translations of important knowledge in the mother tongue of farmers? If economic theories were available in every citizen's mother tongue? Forget all that, we don't even have laws accessible in regional languages easily. Laws citizens are expected to obey - without having access to read them to know what they say. How would lawlessness decrease, if the word of the law never reached the ears of the common man in a language he understands?

In my view, more important than nitpicking about what language the government uses, it is important that excellent and advanced education be made available in regional languages. It is important that the government takes an interest in world knowledge being made available to Indians in regional languages by forming various task forces that translate it. Teams contributing translations to public sites like Wikipedia, special knowledge banks of important works in other languages and more.

Language isn't merely a symbol of unity or supremacy, it is the breathing thread that weaves citizens together. Important weaves must be woven with threads that connect people.

So, the real question isn't whether the government should tweet and update Facebook in English, Hindi or both, the real question is why official government documents are not available in ALL the regional languages of India.

1

Denis Giles of The Andaman Chronicles had, on the 1st of February broken news of shocking sexual exploitation of the Jarawa in the Andaman Islands by outsiders and fishermen. While the sexual exploitation of the Jarawa is nothing new, this time it was a Jarawa man on tape describing the suffering of the Jarawa girls at the hands of intoxicated local poachers and fishermen who violate them and their homes.

The vulnerability of the Jarawa is stark as he knows and names the villains from Junglighat, Wandoor, Herbertabad and Tirur. He accuses them of introducing alcohol and drugs among the Jarawa, chasing Jarawa girls under the influence of alcohol and ganja (marijuana) and sleeping in their huts. They torture the girls.

In the audio clip, the Jarawa man says that poachers regularly visits the Reserve and in the influence of alcohol and ganja chase and hurt the girls and sleep with them in the Jarawa Chadda (hut). He also complains that the girls are physically tortured.

He names almost 20 poachers. They are Chotu, Lamba ka Ladka, Bablu, Sujoy, Deva s/o Neelu, Raja alias Tapas (man with moustache), Haran, Natia, Kishore from Tirur area. Udu (short statured ‘Nata’), Sameer, Pintu, Nitai from Guptapara area. Robin, Neen ka Ladka Mandal, Lalu, Ada ka Bhai rom Wandoor and Thata Rao, his father and other persons in his group from Junglighat, Port Blair.

Poachers trade with the Jarawa and arrests for entering the reserve mean little as they come out on bail and continue. Sexual exploitation is not proved as Jarawa girls won't testify against poachers in court.

Last month on 16th and 17th two teams of poachers were apprehended by a Joint team of AAJVS, Police and Forest from Jarawa Tribal Reserve in the West Coast and Hiren Tikrey. The poachers had taken about 8 Jarawa girls along with them. One of the team stayed in the Reserve for three days along with the girls. The girls were rescued and brought back and all the poachers were arrested under various sections of ANPATR and SC/ST POA Act.

In another incident, a local poacher Nitai Mondal, resident of Guptapara whose name repeatedly appears in the audio clip, went to Chotagoja Jarawa Camp, a Jarawa Reserve on the West Coast on 3rd November with ration articles - rice, vegetable oil, sugar and tea and camped with a group of Jarawas.

On the next day he took two Jarawas - Dawa and Lekhte to Bambu Nallah, where other Jarawas were camping. He stayed with them for a day and later took 5 Jarawas - Anijamu (43), Illy (25), Anjale (27), Achehane (25), and Tahe (22) to Tarmugli Island. Nitai Mondal, who is a habitual offender, is already booked in two cases of exploitation of Jarawas. But, he too was let off on bail.

From the transcript of the audio clip of the Jarawa man

The girls say...

The outsider (in’en) boys press them... lots.

They press them using hands and nails, when the girls get angry.

They chase them under the influence of alcohol, the girls...

They do (yoha) sex (pelta) with the girls.

All the girls, (and he names around 10 girls)

Sujoy and Chotu come to the girls

and Bablu and Nitai and another one Kaushik...

they drink alcohol in the house of girls.

They also sleep in Jarawa’s house (Chadda).

They chase the girls after smoking Ganja (Marijuana). smoking Ganja...

All the outside boys... the boys I named earlier.

Sujoy and one Chotu and one Kaushik and one old man from Guptapara, Nitai and one Sameer and I missed one outsider, no two outsiders... There are two more ... That Mamu from Guptapara... there is a boy you know... his name is Mamu... He is known as Mamu... he is also there...

*************

There are increasing conflicts between the Jarawa and the surrounding areas due insensitive violations of their reserve and exploitation of their women. Video clips of the naked Jarawa women made to dance for food by tour operators have been exposed before.

The strange thing is that when the UK news covers it, like the Guardian expose, our media latches on to it. When a local Andaman paper breaks the story, there is no hope of backup from Indian media. Or perhaps naked women dancing sell better even if blurred than men reporting serious wrongs, but no eye candy for our "sex sells" media?

This is fairly shocking, but what is more bizarre is that the police have filed six notices against Denis who broke the story.

And this still is not National News.

So now one has to wonder why.

Part 1 || Part 2 || Part 3 || Part 4 || Part 5 || Part 6 || Part 7

One such noteworthy phenomenon is the scramble for ‘good’ schools that provide education in the English medium in exchange for what, at times, amounts to ‘a King’s ransom’ by contrast with other schools that use ‘regional languages’ as the medium of instruction. Please note that the words ‘regional languages’ have been put within inverted commas. I was born in British India, fortunately in a family of freedom fighters and social reformers. Along with the norm at home of buying everything Indian as opposed to imported British goods, I went to a Bengali medium school. In those days, the medium of education in every Indian language was considered as getting educated in one’s mother tongue and not in a ‘regional language’. We knew that our future careers were likely to suffer irrespective of the quality of English language that we learnt, because we did not go to an English medium school. A strong sense of commitment to our mother tongue allowed us to deal with that anxiety. The British imperialists had tried their best to destroy this commitment and undermine the status of local languages by using the term ‘vernacular’ to describe the various languages that Indians used as mother tongue. The Chamber’s and Oxford Dictionaries published prior to 1930s defined the word vernacular as ‘pertaining to the tongue of the slave’ i.e., the Indians were slaves in the minds of the British as part of the US and European heritage of actual slave trade. The British in India had carried on a slave trade in the garb of indentured labour long after slavery was legally abolished. So their languages were described as the language of the slaves, thus making a great effort to downgrade the various local languages of the Indian sub-continent.

Much later, after the Indian Empire vanished and in its place there came the nations of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, the definition of ‘vernacular’ also got changed in the later editions of those dictionaries. The new definition became ‘the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people of a country or region’. It leaves me to wonder if in the mind of the British Imperialists the status of being the master of its south Asian colonies still exists, so that while the ‘ordinary people’ speak ‘vernacular’, some kind of extra ordinary status is conferred upon those people in former colonies who speak in English!

This emphasis on ‘ordinary people’ seems to have impacted the Indian psyche to produce the idea that students of English medium schools belong to an ‘exclusive’ class, who are perhaps a cut above the ‘ordinary people’ who can afford education only in the ‘regional language’.

So the ‘colonial hangover’ is about being politically correct in raising the status of ‘slave’ to the ‘ordinary’, the ‘hoi polloi’. The tragedy of this country is that the average hoi polloi has also accepted this constructed reality and continue to use the word ‘vernacular’ to denote various local Indian languages, including their mother tongue.

One also wonders to what extent the ‘racial discrimination’ based rules about dress code, special discriminatory treatment by the immigration personnel at airports, such incidents as the killing of an unarmed olive skinned South American in a London Underground station by the British Police without any provocation, and attacks on Indians by White Australians in Melbourne (2009) are part of the colonial hangover passed on to the progenies of those who had ruthlessly conquered the black people’s land and plundered their riches. In fact in Australia even though many non-white people are also Australian citizens for more than one generation, they are not always referred to as Australians. Colloquially, only the white skinned immigrants, even those recently ‘naturalised’, are called Australian. Australian citizens with Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Indonesian etc. origin are called Asian, and the citizens of Indian origin remain Indian! Behind this there could be an unconscious assumption, which is that non-whites are not worthy of Australian citizenship along with her white citizens.

Another very destructive ploy of the British Imperialists was translating the word dharma into English as ‘religion’, perhaps taking a cue from another imperial European power of that era whose representative, Max Mueller, ‘translated’ many ancient Indian Sanskrit texts. Anyone who knows Sanskrit well and has read some of the sub-continental ancient Sanskrit literature knows that while the word ‘translation’ is generally used to denote rendering the texts in various non-Sanskrit languages, actually it becomes largely a matter of interpretation. One of the reasons for that is that many Sanskrit words have multiple meanings and the choice of a particular meaning depends on one’s understanding of the cultural context. Further, the so-called translator leaves his or her mark by using capital letters for some words since in Sanskrit there are no capital and small letters. Very few people seem to have given much thought to this mistake of using ‘religion’ as the English of dharma. Dharma in the past was a very inclusive term with multiple meanings. Some of these meanings still remain. At one level it is applied to a very wide range of behaviours called monushya dharma to highlight the common human inner realities expressed as behavioural characteristics as opposed to those of animals (or shall we say of various species of animals other than the species termed as homo sapiens). In the past, of course, monushyas represented an ethnic group who were separate from such other ethnic groups as devas, gandharvas, rakshasas etc. The definition of dharma then keeps narrowing its boundary through such meanings as the expected ethics and behaviour of kings and other varieties of rulers ‘by divine right’ (raj dharma), that were accepted and got incorporated in the dharma enforced by the powerful Vedic people, who followed the brahmanya dharma with its four-fold socio-economic classification of brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya and sudra, down to the personal philosophy and ethics of creative people who questioned the prevalent culture.

Continued in Part 3

Biographical Note

Gouranga Chattopadhyay is Emeritus Professor of HR of the Academy of Human Resources, Ahmedabad and an independent OD consultant, executive coach and personal counsellor. He can be contacted at gipisi2@gmail.com.