Challenging the Metanarrative Of Indian Independence Struggle.
A historian ought to be exact, sincere and impartial; free from passion, unbiased by interest, fear, resentment or affection; and faithful to the truth, which is the mother of history the preserver of great actions, the enemy of oblivion, the witness of the past, the director of the future, says Ambedkar.
The function of historian is neither to love the past, nor to condemn the past, nor to be free from the past, but to master the past in order to understand its bearing on the present. Therefore, let us re-look into the significance of 15th August 1947 for our country and its citizens. And also what we as Indians technically achieved on our most celebrated and glorified National holiday.
What India got on 15th August 1947?
- What is a Dominion? Dominion means colonial self-Government.
- Was the Total independence achieved from the British rule?
The late 19th century till the mid of twentieth century is very crucial in the evolution of Republic of India, as it stands today. This period marks the rise of political conscious and ambitious Indian nationalism. This is the period when the Indians started voicing out their political demands to the British Government. The politics of this time is described by the nationalist historiography as India’s Independence Struggle. This description is hitherto not challenged. Nationalists will not challenge this description is natural and can be easily understood. The Hindutva ideology also does not counter this description and in fact makes an attempt to locate itself within this framework in order to picture themselves and their leaders as ‘freedom fighters’ as it serves their task of Hindu Nationalism. The Ambedkarite Movement, the leftist Marxist movement, the Kanshiram pioneered Bahujan movement seems to disagree with this nationalist description though it cannot be in anyway regarded as countering the fundamental basis of the description and hence cannot be regarded as a challenge to the nationalist description. Their objection is mainly to the title of ‘Freedom Struggle’ and they want to merely describe it as ‘Transfer of Power from B2B i.e. From British to the power hungry Brahmins’. They do not question the fundamental assumptions of this description namely the ‘struggle of Indians against the tyrannical British rulers’, ‘the Congress Nationalism as the only nationalism’ etc. Their complain, being merely over the title and as it does not challenge the nationalist paradigm in any way, hence not fundamental and does not have any major bearing on the nationalist historiography. Thus their disagreement in fact is no disagreement.
Dr. Ambedkar described the Indian politics of his times as having two different aspects, namely –
- Foreign politics i.e. Quit India or the Transfer of Power Politics and
- Constitutional Politics i.e. the Communal Deadlock or the struggle between the Hindu Communal Majority against the Minorities.
Below is the sequence of events that took place around 15th August 1947, technically:
- What India got on 15th August 1947?
- On 15th August 1947 India got the Dominion status under the Indian Independence Act, 1947.
- Dominion is defined as a British colony with a responsible local self government. This means that India was a British colony even on 15th August 1947.
- The below excerpt from the Constituent Assembly debates would serve as the best evidence to understand the significance of 15th August 1947:
The confusion in the Constituent assembly:
Thursday, the 14th August 1947
(2) the Constituent Assembly of India has endorsed the recommendation that Lord Mountbatten be Governor-General of India from the 15th August 1947.
and that this message be conveyed forthwith to Lord Mountbatten by the President and Pandit Jawaharlal.Nehru. (Cheers.) I take it the House approves it.
The motion was adopted.
Friday, the 15th August 1947
The wishes from many countries started pouring in to India for achieving the Dominion status. None of them mentioned “Republic of India” but just “Dominion of India” in their wishes.
Few messages could be read as below:
Message from Dr. Soedarsono on behalf of the Republic of Indonesia:
“On the eve of the establishment of the Dominion of India it is a great pleasure to the Republic of Indonesia to express her feelings of heartfelt joy, sympathy and friendship.”
Message from the President of the United States of America:
“On this memorable occasion I extend to you, to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and to the people of the Dominion of India the sincere best wishes of the Government and the people, of the United.States of America. I wish to avail myself of this opportunity of extending my personal congratulations to Your Excellency on your assumption of the post of Governor-General of the Dominion of India and at the same time to convey assurance of my highest consideration.”
H.E (His Excellency), the Governor-General: Mr. President and members of the Constituent Assembly:
“From today I am your constitutional Governor-General and I would ask you to regard me as one of yourselves. I am glad to announce that “my” Government (as I am now constitutionally entitled and most proud to call them) have decided to mark this historic occasion by a generous programme of amnesty.”
HOISTING OF THE NATIONAL FLAG
Mr. President: His Excellency will now give the signal for hoisting the Flag.
(The sound of a gun being fired was heard).
H.E. The Governor-General: That is the signal for hoisting the flag over this roof.
Mr. President: The House now stands adjourned till 10 of the Clock on the 20th.
Honourable Members: Mahatma Gandhi ki jai.
Mahatma Gandhi ki jai.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru ki jai.
Lord Mountbatten ki jai.
The Assembly then adjourned till 10 of the Clock on Wednesday, the 20th August 1947.
- On 15th August 1947 what was achieved was not Independence (Swatantrya) but Home Rule (Swarajya).
- The Constitutional head of India was the British Crown till 26th January 1950.
- On 26th January 1950 after all the provisions of the Constitution were made effective, India became a Sovereign Republic and Democratic country.
- From 15th August 1947 to 26th January 1950 India was governed according to the provisions of amended Government of India Act, 1935.
- Only on 26th January 1950 all the ties with the British Crown were broken and India was politically and constitutionally free country with all the privileges related to military and foreign relation powers.
- Therefore, India became free and got Total Independence (Swatantrya or Purna Swarajya) only on 26th January 1950, at least in technical sense.
- More so because even the date of 26th January was chosen for the implementation of Constitution because on this very day in 1930, the Congress passed the resolution of “Poorna Swaraj” in Lahore.
- Therefore, 15th August is therefore just a Dominion Day and not the Independence Day.
- The below illustration explains the political entitlements and progress India achieved:
India before the advent of British Raj
We must remember that what we now see as “India” was originally a collection of petty rajas, and kingdoms. It’s the invaders who unified the subcontinent into a country called India. So let’s be truthful about the facts and teach history as it happened and notoriously though thank those invaders for the present unity and diversity we enjoy. Myths also have played a major role in India attaining independence. The political movement of the Indian National Congress which started from the demand of ‘Home Rule’ i.e. ‘Dominion Status’ and matured into the demand of ‘Total Independence’ under the pressure of extremist movements outside and within the Congress is referred as the movement of Indian Independence is a point in case. The significance of 15th August 1947 must be seen in the light of these demands. Dissenting voices, if any, are raised only in the academic intellectual circles and are deliberately confined within the closed walls of universities, academic institutions and history congress.
The ‘Secularist’ and ‘Hindu-Nationalist’ Narratives concurrent apparently contradictory but part of the Same Grand Narrative, namely which camp is more patriotic.
Civic Nationalism (New India) and Anti-colonial Nationalism (Quit India):
Nationalism is not an end but just a means for the individuals to reach the highest stage of Human development. An Individual is an end it itself. To create the social, political conditions in the world where each individual could spread the wingspan to its maximum potential. Nationalism which reformists like Phule and Ambedkar vouched for did not just object to the external domination but also the internal oppression, i.e. their brand of Patriotism deals with both the above progresses namely, Foreign politics as well as Constitutional politics which India as a country was heading towards. Unfortunately, the glorification of 15th August as Independence day which is confined to the mere idea of Foreign politics clearly subverts the latter progress, namely, the Constitutional politics which was also moving forward in parallel with the Foreign politics. Mere celebration of the freedom struggle movement against the British rule, invokes a limited sentiment of Anti-colonial Nationalism. The period of late 19th century till the mid of twentieth century has been also remarkable in resolving the age-old feuds among Indians. The people, now citizens, were nothing but warring camps. The Hindu-Muslim issue. The caste inequalities. The princely states vs their subjects, now citizens. The Zamindars vs the landless.
This period has been instrumental in finding a safe ground plan to address innumerable such issues among Indians for a safe and sustainable democracy after the British rule would end.
Social reform must precede Political reform. Alteast the political reformists must consider Social reform as an integral part of the political reform. But the subversion of Social conference of Ranade by Tilak is the best example of the undermining of Social reform in context of Indian independence struggle. Be it through right from Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, to the working and contribution of Indian intelligentsia in the works of various commissions, the Round table conferences that followed likewise in the making of India. And then ultimately at the remarkable and exhaustive Constituent assembly debates.
Like Anti-colonial movement, the Constitutional politics involved even more herculean task of bringing all the warring groups on board. All of these efforts involved a series of conflicts and struggle among the Indians to achieve the position of dignity in free India. The biggest example of the conflict among Indians manifested into partition and blood bath that followed soon after 15th August 1947. The constitutional politics was addressing this very problem. It was indeed talking about New India and the new order.
The significance of this period is more relevant in today’s times of continued struggle among Indians. If it is true that Political democracy cannot sustain without Social democracy, then this period of Constitutional politics must be indeed celebrated as Freedom struggle movement. It was the century of the Making of Present India. The test of patriotism therefore does not lie in participation in the Anti-colonial movement. The contribution towards the Constitutional politics is more apt in today’s times of continued struggle.
The constitutional politics plays an instrumental role in defining the present form of India as a Nation-in-the making. Therefore, at least in technical sense, India became free and got Total Independence (Swatantrya or Purna Swarajya) only on 26th January 1950.
The results of glorification of 15th August as Independence day therefore subverts the much needed Constitutional morality which is already lacking among Indians.
Like they say in New Zealand, Happy Dominion day !
 Swatantrata din ki Paheli – A research paper by Sumedh Ukey
 Constituent assembly debate proceedings.
 The Modern Law Review,Volume 12, Issue 3, Article first published online: 18 JAN
 Conditions precedent for the successful working of democracy, Dr. Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, Vol 17 , Part THREE, page 480